The patients, some of whom had not yet been tested, broke out of the treatment centre in the Congolese city of Beni.
Officials have tracked three of them, but the rest remain at large, sparking a fear of the deadly disease spreading.
The attack was orchestrated by demonstrators angry at being excluded from voting in the weekend’s election.
Beni and its surrounding area has had voting cancelled by the government due to the ebola outbreak and militia violence.
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s health ministry spokeswoman Jessica Ilunga said 17 patients had already tested negative for Ebola, while seven had not yet been tested.